Referenze

Updated: Nov 28, 2019



Siccome ogni tanto qualcuno mi chiede se quello che scrivo è dimostrato scientificamente, per quanto ho asserito nel post precedente che parla di CBD ho pensato di postare qualche referenza in modo da accontentarli e da fugare ogni dubbio.


Referenze:

1.↑Pertwee, R. G., Pryce, G., & Baker, D. (2014). Cannabis and Multiple Sclerosis. In Handbook of cannabis: Edited by Roger G. Pertwee. New York: Oxford University Press.

2.↑Freeman, R. M., Adekanmi, O., Waterfield, M. R., Waterfield, A. E., Wright, D., & Zajicek, J. (2006). The effect of cannabis on urge incontinence in patients with multiple sclerosis: a multicentre, randomised placebo-controlled trial (CAMS-LUTS). International Urogynecology Journal, 17(6), 636-641. doi:10.1007/s00192-006-0086-x

3.↑Wade, D. T., Makela, P., Robson, P., House, H., & Bateman, C. (2004). Do cannabis-based medicinal extracts have general or specific effects on symptoms in multiple sclerosis? A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study on 160 patients. Multiple Sclerosis Journal, 10(4), 434-441. doi:10.1191/1352458504ms1082oa

4.↑Zajicek, J., Fox, P., Sanders, H., Wright, D., Vickery, J., Nunn, A., & Thompson, A. (2003). Cannabinoids for treatment of spasticity and other symptoms related to multiple sclerosis (CAMS study): multicentre randomised placebo-controlled trial. The Lancet, 362(9395), 1517-1526. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(03)14738-1

5.↑Burns, T. L., & Ineck, J. R. (2006). Cannabinoid Analgesia as a Potential New Therapeutic Option in the Treatment of Chronic Pain. Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 40(2), 251-260. doi:10.1345/aph.1g217

6.↑Pertwee, R. G., Costa, B., & Comelli, F. (2014). Pain, In Handbook of cannabis: Edited by Roger G. Pertwee. New York: Oxford University Press.

7.↑Williams, J., Haller, V. L., Stevens, D. L., & Welch, S. P. (2008). Decreased basal endogenous opioid levels in diabetic rodents: Effects on morphine and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinoid-induced antinociception. European Journal of Pharmacology, 584(1), 78-86. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2007.12.035

8.↑Toth, C. C., Jedrzejewski, N. M., Ellis, C. L., & Frey, W. H. (2010). Cannabinoid-Mediated Modulation of Neuropathic Pain and Microglial Accumulation in a Model of Murine Type I Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathic Pain. Molecular Pain, 6, 1744-8069-6-16. doi:10.1186/1744-8069-6-16

9.↑Welch, S. P., & Stevens, D. L. (1992). Antinociceptive activity of intrathecally administered cannabinoids alone, and in combination with morphine, in mice. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 262(1), 10-18.

10.↑Welch, S. P., Thomas, C., & Patrick, G. S. (1995). Modulation of cannabinoid-induced antinociception after intracerebroventricular versus intrathecal administration to mice: possible mechanisms for interaction with morphine. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 272(1), 310-321.

11.↑Cichewicz, D. L. (2003). Modulation of Oral Morphine Antinociceptive Tolerance and Naloxone-Precipitated Withdrawal Signs by Oral Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 305(3), 812-817. doi:10.1124/jpet.102.046870

12.↑Cichewicz, D. L., & McCarthy, E. A. (2003). Antinociceptive synergy between delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and opioids after oral administration. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 304(3), 1010-1015.

13.↑Sanders, J., Jackson, D. M., & Starmer, G. A. (1979). Interactions among the cannabinoids in the antagonism of the abdominal constriction response in the mouse. PsychoPharmacology (Berlin), 61(3), 281-285.

14.↑Sofia, R. D., Vassar, H. B., & Knobloch, L. C. (1975). Comparative analgesic activity of various naturally occurring cannabinoids in mice and rats. Psychopharmacologia, 40(4), 285-295. doi:10.1007/bf00421466

15.↑Costa, B., Colleoni, M., Conti, S., Parolaro, D., Franke, C., Trovato, A. E., & Giagnoni, G. (2004). Oral anti-inflammatory activity of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive constituent of cannabis, in acute carrageenan-induced inflammation in the rat paw. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Archives of Pharmacology, 369(3), 294-299. doi:10.1007/s00210-004-0871-3

16.↑Costa, B., Trovato, A. E., Comelli, F., Giagnoni, G., & Colleoni, M. (2007). The non-psychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an orally effective therapeutic agent in rat chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain. European Journal of Pharmacology, 556(1-3), 75-83. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2006.11.006

17.↑Ligresti, A. (2006). Antitumor Activity of Plant Cannabinoids with Emphasis on the Effect of Cannabidiol on Human Breast Carcinoma. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 318(3), 1375-1387. doi:10.1124/jpet.106.105247

18.↑Pertwee, R. G. (2009). Emerging strategies for exploiting cannabinoid receptor agonists as medicines. British Journal of Pharmacology, 156(3), 397-411. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2008.00048.x

19.↑Davis, W. G., & Hatoum, N. S. (1983). Neurobehavioral actions of cannabichromene and interactions with Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol. General Pharmacology: The Vascular System, 14(2), 247-252. doi:10.1016/0306-3623(83)90004-6

20.↑De Petrocellis, L., Ligresti, A., Moriello, A. S., Allarà, M., Bisogno, T., Petrosino, S., … Di Marzo, V. (2011). Effects of cannabinoids and cannabinoid-enrichedCannabisextracts on TRP channels and endocannabinoid metabolic enzymes. British Journal of Pharmacology, 163(7), 1479-1494.

21.↑Pertwee, R. G. (2014). Effect of phytocannabinoids on nausea and vomiting. In Handbook of cannabis: Edited by Roger G. Pertwee. New York: Oxford University Press.

22.↑Cotter, J. (2009). Efficacy of Crude Marijuana and Synthetic Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol as Treatment for Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting: A Systematic Literature Review. Oncology Nursing Forum, 36(3), 345-352. doi:10.1188/09.onf.345-352

23.↑Rock, E. M., Goodwin, J. M., Limebeer, C. L., Breuer, A., Pertwee, R. G., Mechoulam, R., & Parker, L. A. (2011). Interaction between non-psychotropic cannabinoids in marihuana: effect of cannabigerol (CBG) on the anti-nausea or anti-emetic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in rats and shrews. Psychopharmacology, 215(3), 505-512. doi:10.1007/s00213-010-2157-4

24.↑Darmani, N. A., Janoyan, J. J., Crim, J., & Ramirez, J. (2007). Receptor mechanism and antiemetic activity of structurally‐diverse cannabinoids against radiation‐induced emesis in the least shrew. European Journal of Pharmacology, 563(1-3), 187-196. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2007.01.093

25.↑Duran, M., Pérez, E., Abanades, S., Vidal, X., Saura, C., Majem, M., … Capellà, D. (2010). Preliminary efficacy and safety of an oromucosal standardized cannabis extract in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 70(5), 656-663.

26.↑Pertwee, R. G. (2014). Effect of phytocannabinoids on nausea and vomiting. In Handbook of cannabis: Edited by Roger G. Pertwee. New York: Oxford University Press.

27.↑Pertwee, R. G., Cristino, L., & Di Marzo, V. (2014). Established and Emerging Concepts of Cannabinoid Action on Food Intake and their Potential Application to the Treatment of Anorexia and Cachexia In Handbook of cannabis: Edited by Roger G. Pertwee. New York: Oxford University Press.

28.↑Pertwee, R. G., Cristino, L., & Di Marzo, V. (2014). Established and Emerging Concepts of Cannabinoid Action on Food Intake and their Potential Application to the Treatment of Anorexia and Cachexia In Handbook of cannabis: Edited by Roger G. Pertwee. New York: Oxford University Press.

29.↑Walsh, D., Donnelly, S., & Rybicki, L. (2000). The symptoms of advanced cancer: relationship to age, gender, and performance status in 1,000 patients. Supportive Care in Cancer, 8(3), 175-179. doi:10.1007/s005200050281

30.↑Pertwee, R. G., Cristino, L., & Di Marzo, V. (2014). Established and Emerging Concepts of Cannabinoid Action on Food Intake and their Potential Application to the Treatment of Anorexia and Cachexia. In Handbook of cannabis: Edited by Roger G. Pertwee. New York: Oxford University Press.

31. Pertwee, R. G., Cristino, L., & Di Marzo, V. (2014). Established and Emerging Concepts of Cannabinoid Action on Food Intake and their Potential Application to the Treatment of Anorexia and Cachexia. In Handbook of cannabis: Edited by Roger G. Pertwee. New York: Oxford University Press.

32.↑Hepler, R. S. (1971). Marihuana Smoking and Intraocular Pressure. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 217(10), 1392. doi:10.1001/jama.1971.03190100074024

33.↑Green, K. S., & Roth, M. (1982). Ocular Effects of Topical Administration of 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Man. Archives of Ophthalmology, 100(2), 265-267. doi:10.1001/archopht.1982.01030030267006

34.↑Pertwee, R. G., Xu, H., & Azuara-Blanco, A. (2014). Phytocannabinoids in Degenerative and Inflammatory Retinal Diseases: Glaucoma, Age-Related Macular Degeneration, Diabetic Retinopathy and Uveoretinitis. In Handbook of cannabis: Edited by Roger G. Pertwee. New York: Oxford University Press.

35.↑Müller-Vahl, K. R. (2015). Cannabinoids and the Tourette syndrome. Cannabinoids in Neurologic and Mental Disease, 227-245. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-417041-4.00010-2

36.↑J. Geldenhuys, W., & J. Van der Schyf, C. (2013). Rationally Designed Multi-Targeted Agents Against Neurodegenerative Diseases. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 20(13), 1662-1672. doi:10.2174/09298673113209990112

37.↑Fernandèz-Ruiz, J., De Lago, E., Gomez-Ruiz, M., Garcia, C., Sagredo, O., & Garcia-Arencibia, M. (2014). Neurodegenerative disorders other than Multiple Sclerosis. In Handbook of cannabis: Edited by Roger G. Pertwee. New York: Oxford University Press.

38.↑J. Geldenhuys, W., & J. Van der Schyf, C. (2013). Rationally Designed Multi-Targeted Agents Against Neurodegenerative Diseases. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 20(13), 1662-1672. doi:10.2174/09298673113209990112

39.↑O’Shaughnessy, W. B. (1843). On the Preparations of the Indian Hemp, or Gunjah: Cannabis Indica Their Effects on the Animal System in Health, and their Utility in the Treatment of Tetanus and other Convulsive Diseases. BMJ, s1-5(123), 363-369. doi:10.1136/bmj.s1-5.123.363

40.↑Reynolds, J. B. (1868). ON THE THERAPEUTICAL USES AND TOXIC EFFECTS OF CANNABIS INDICA. The Lancet, 135(3473), 637-638. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(02)18723-x

41.↑Pertwee, R. G., Williams, C. M., Jones, N. A., & Whalley, B. J. (2014). Cannabis and Epilepsy. In Handbook of cannabis: Edited by Roger G. Pertwee. New York: Oxford University Press.

42.↑Jones, N. A., Glyn, S. E., Akiyama, S., Hill, T. D., Hill, A. J., Weston, S. E., … Williams, C. M. (2012). Cannabidiol exerts anti-convulsant effects in animal models of temporal lobe and partial seizures. Seizure, 21(5), 344-352. doi:10.1016/j.seizure.2012.03.001

43.↑Devinsky, Orrin, et al. “Effect of Cannabidiol on Drop Seizures in the Lennox–Gastaut Syndrome.” New England Journal of Medicine 378.20 (2018): 1888-1897.

44.↑Tzadok, M., Uliel-Siboni, S., Linder, I., Kramer, U., Epstein, O., Menascu, S., Ben-Zeev, B. (2016). CBD-enriched medical cannabis for intractable pediatric epilepsy. Seizure, 35, 41-44. doi:10.1016/j.seizure.2016.01.004

45.↑Pertwee, R. G., Williams, C. M., Jones, N. A., & Whalley, B. J. (2014). Cannabis and Epilepsy. In Handbook of cannabis: Edited by Roger G. Pertwee. New York: Oxford University Press.

46.↑Pertwee, R. G., Xu, H., & Azuara-Blanco, A. (2014). Phytocannabinoids in Degenerative and Inflammatory Retinal Diseases: Glaucoma, Age-Related Macular Degeneration, Diabetic Retinopathy and Uveoretinitis. In Handbook of cannabis: Edited by Roger G. Pertwee. New York: Oxford University Press.

47.↑Pertwee, R. G., Oddi, S., & Maccarone, M. (2014). Phytocannabinoids & Skin Disorders. In Handbook of cannabis: Edited by Roger G. Pertwee. New York: Oxford University Press.

48.↑Wilkinson, J. D., & Williamson, E. M. (2007). Cannabinoids inhibit human keratinocyte proliferation through a non-CB1/CB2 mechanism and have a potential therapeutic value in the treatment of psoriasis. Journal of Dermatological Science, 45(2), 87-92. doi:10.1016/j.jdermsci.2006.10.009

49.↑Paradisi, A., Pasquariello, N., Barcaroli, D., & Maccarrone, M. (2007). Anandamide Regulates Keratinocyte Differentiation by Inducing DNA Methylation in a CB1 Receptor-dependent Manner. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 283(10), 6005-6012. doi:10.1074/jbc.m707964200

50.↑Blázquez, C., Carracedo, A., Barrado, L., Real, P. J., Fernández-Luna, J. L., Velasco, G., Guzmán, M. (2006). Cannabinoid receptors as novel targets for the treatment of melanoma. The FASEB Journal, 20(14), 2633-2635. doi:10.1096/fj.06-6638fje

51.↑Cerrato, S., Brazis, P., Della Valle, M., Miolo, A., & Puigdemont, A. (2010). Effects of palmitoylethanolamide on immunologically induced histamine, PGD2 and TNFα release from canine skin mast cells. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 133(1), 9-15. doi:10.1016/j.vetimm.2009.06.011

52.↑Durst, R., Danenberg, H., Gallily, R., Mechoulam, R., Meir, K., Grad, E., Lotan, C. (2007). Cannabidiol, a nonpsychoactive Cannabis constituent, protects against myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 293(6), H3602-H3607. doi:10.1152/ajpheart.00098.2007

53.↑Walsh, S. K., Hepburn, C. Y., Kane, K. A., & Wainwright, C. L. (2010). Acute administration of cannabidiol in vivo suppresses ischaemia-induced cardiac arrhythmias and reduces infarct size when given at reperfusion. British Journal of Pharmacology, 160(5), 1234-1242.

54.↑Horváth, B., Mukhopadhyay, P., Haskó, G., & Pacher, P. (2012). The Endocannabinoid System and Plant-Derived Cannabinoids in Diabetes and Diabetic Complications. The American Journal of Pathology, 180(2), 432-442. doi:10.1016/j.ajpath.2011.11.003

55.↑Weiss, L., Zeira, M., Reich, S., Har-Noy, M., Mechoulam, R., Slavin, S., & Gallily, R. (2006). Cannabidiol lowers incidence of diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice. Autoimmunity, 39(2), 143-151. doi:10.1080/08916930500356674

56.↑Weiss, L., Zeira, M., Reich, S., Slavin, S., Raz, I., Mechoulam, R., & Gallily, R. (2008). Cannabidiol arrests onset of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. Neuropharmacology, 54(1), 244-249. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2007.06.029

57.↑Levendal R, Schumann D, Donath M, Frost C. Cannabis exposure associated with weight reduction and b -cell protection in an obese rat model. Phytomedicine. (2012) ;19:575-582.

58.↑Riedel, G., Fadda, P., McKillop-Smith, S., Pertwee, R. G., Platt, B., & Robinson, L. (2009). Synthetic and plant-derived cannabinoid receptor antagonists show hypophagic properties in fasted and non-fasted mice. British Journal of Pharmacology, 156(7), 1154-1166.

59.↑Wargent, E. T., Zaibi, M. S., Silvestri, C., Hislop, D. C., Stocker, C. J., Stott, C. G., … Cawthorne, M. A. (2013). The cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) ameliorates insulin sensitivity in two mouse models of obesity. Nutrition & Diabetes, 3(5), e68-e68. doi:10.1038/nutd.2013.9

60.↑Li, X., Kaminski, N. E., & Fischer, L. J. (2001). Examination of the immunosuppressive effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in streptozotocin-induced autoimmune diabetes. International Immunopharmacology, 1(4), 699-712. doi:10.1016/s1567-5769(01)00003-0

61.↑Coskun, Z. M., & Bolkent, S. (2014). Biochemical and immunohistochemical changes in delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-treated type 2 diabetic rats. Acta Histochemica, 116(1), 112-116. doi:10.1016/j.acthis.2013.05.013

62.↑Wong, A., Gunasekaran, N., Hancock, D., Denyer, G., Meng, L., Radford, J.Arnold, J. (2011). The Major Plant-derived Cannabinoid Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Promotes Hypertrophy and Macrophage Infiltration in Adipose Tissue. Hormone and Metabolic Research, 44(02), 105-113. doi:10.1055/s-0031-1297940

63. Rajavashisth, T. B., Shaheen, M., Norris, K. C., Pan, D., Sinha, S. K., Ortega, J., & Friedman, T. C. (2012). Decreased prevalence of diabetes in marijuana users: cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III. BMJ Open, 2(1), e000494. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2011-000494

64.↑Hollister, L. E., & Reaven, G. M. (1974). Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and glucose tolerance. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 16(2), 297-302. doi:10.1002/cpt1974162297

65.↑Le Foll, B., Trigo, J. M., Sharkey, K. A., & Strat, Y. L. (2013). Cannabis and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) for weight loss?. Medical Hypotheses, 80(5), 564-567. doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2013.01.019

66.↑Coruzzi, G. R., Adami, M., Guaita, E., Menozzi, A., Bertini, S., Giovannini, E., & Soldani, G. (2006). Effects of Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists on Rat Gastric Acid Secretion: Discrepancy Between In Vitro and In Vivo Data. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 51(2), 310-317. doi:10.1007/s10620-006-3130-2

67.↑Rutkowska, M. (2009). Involvement of nitric oxide in the gastroprotective effect of ACEA, a selective cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist, on aspirin-induced gastric ulceration. Pharmazie, 64, 595-597.

68.↑Germanò, M. P., D’Angelo, V., Mondello, M. R., Pergolizzi, S., Capasso, F., Capasso, R., … De Pasquale, R. (2001). Cannabinoid CB 1 -mediated inhibition of stress-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Archives of Pharmacology, 363(2), 241-244. doi:10.1007/s002100000360

69.↑Rivas-V, J., & García, R. (1980). Inhibition of histamine-stimulated gastric acid secretion by Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in rat isolated stomach. European Journal of Pharmacology, 65(2-3), 317-318. doi:10.1016/0014-2999(80)90410-0

70.↑Pinto. (2002). Erratum to ‘Endocannabinoids and the gut’ [Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2002; 66: 333–341]. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 67(4), 275. doi:10.1054/plef.2002.0448

71.↑Camilleri, M. (2018). Cannabinoids and gastrointestinal motility: Pharmacology, clinical effects, and potential therapeutics in humans. Neurogastroenterology & Motility, 30(9), e13370. doi:10.1111/nmo.13370

72.↑Capasso, R., Borrelli, F., Aviello, G., Romano, B., Scalisi, C., Capasso, F., & Izzo, A. A. (2008). Cannabidiol, extracted from Cannabis sativa, selectively inhibits inflammatory hypermotility in mice. British Journal of Pharmacology, 154(5), 1001-1008. doi:10.1038/bjp.2008.177

73.↑Lahat, A., Lang, A., & Ben-Horin, S. (2012). Impact of Cannabis Treatment on the Quality of Life, Weight and Clinical Disease Activity in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients: A Pilot Prospective Study. Digestion, 85(1), 1-8. doi:10.1159/000332079

74.↑Pertwee, R. G. (2009). Emerging strategies for exploiting cannabinoid receptor agonists as medicines. British Journal of Pharmacology, 156(3), 397-411.

75.↑Pertwee, R. G., Velasco, G., Sanchez, C., & Guzman, M. (2014). Cancer. In Handbook of cannabis: Edited by Roger G. Pertwee. New York: Oxford University Press.

76.↑Velasco, G., Sánchez, C., & Guzmán, M. (2012). Towards the use of cannabinoids as antitumour agents. Nature Reviews Cancer, 12(6), 436-444. doi:10.1038/nrc3247

77.↑Guzmán, M., Duarte, M. J., Blázquez, C., Ravina, J., Rosa, M. C., Galve-Roperh, I., … González-Feria, L. (2006). A pilot clinical study of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. British Journal of Cancer, 95(2), 197-203. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6603236

78.↑Marcu, J. P., Christian, R. T., Lau, D., Zielinski, A. J., Horowitz, M. P., Lee, J., McAllister, S. D. (2010). Cannabidiol Enhances the Inhibitory Effects of 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol on Human Glioblastoma Cell Proliferation and Survival. Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, 9(1), 180-189. doi:10.1158/1535-7163.mct-09-0407

79.↑Torres, S., Lorente, M., Rodriguez-Fornes, F., Hernandez-Tiedra, S., Salazar, M., Garcia-Taboada, E. Velasco, G. (2011). A Combined Preclinical Therapy of Cannabinoids and Temozolomide against Glioma. Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, 10(1), 90-103. doi:10.1158/1535-7163.mct-10-0688

80.↑Pertwee, R. G., Velasco, G., Sanchez, C., & Guzman, M. (2014). Cancer. In Handbook of cannabis: Edited by Roger G. Pertwee. New York: Oxford University Press.

81.↑Ofek, O., Karsak, M., Leclerc, N., Fogel, M., Frenkel, B., Wright, K., … Bab, I. (2006). Peripheral cannabinoid receptor, CB2, regulates bone mass. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103(3), 696-701. doi:10.1073/pnas.0504187103

82.↑Freemon, F. R. (1982). The effect of chronically administered delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol upon the polygraphically monitored sleep of normal volunteers. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 10(4), 345-353. doi:10.1016/0376-8716(82)90036-9

83.↑Murillo-Rodriguez, E., Aguilar-Turton, L., Mijangos-Moreno, S., Sarro-Ramirez, A., & Arias-Carrion, O. (2014). Phytocannabinoids as Novel Therapeutic Agents for Sleep Disorders. In Handbook of cannabis: Edited by Roger G. Pertwee. New York: Oxford University Press.

84.↑Fraser, G. A. (2009). The Use of a Synthetic Cannabinoid in the Management of Treatment-Resistant Nightmares in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics, 15(1), 84-88.

85.↑Ware, M. A., Fitzcharles, M., & Shir, Y. (2008). (225) The effects of nabilone on sleep in fibromyalgia: Results of a randomized controlled trial. The Journal of Pain, 9(4), 32. doi:10.1016/j.jpain.2008.01.146

86.↑D’Souza, D. C., Perry, E., MacDougall, L., Ammerman, Y., Cooper, T., Wu, Y.,Krystal, J. H. (2004). The Psychotomimetic Effects of Intravenous Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Healthy Individuals: Implications for Psychosis. Neuropsychopharmacology, 29(8), 1558-1572. doi:10.1038/sj.npp.1300496

87.↑Di Forti, M., Morrison, P. D., Butt, A., & Murray, R. M. (2007). Cannabis use and psychiatric and cogitive disorders: the chicken or the egg?. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 20(3), 228-234.

88.↑Koethe, D., Giuffrida, A., Schreiber, D., Hellmich, M., Schultze-Lutter, F., Ruhrmann, S., Leweke, F. M. (2009). Anandamide elevation in cerebrospinal fluid in initial prodromal states of psychosis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 194(04), 371-372. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.108.053843

89.↑Morgan, C. J., Page, E., Schaefer, C., Chatten, K., Manocha, A., Gulati, S., Leweke, F. M. (2013). Cerebrospinal fluid anandamide levels, cannabis use and psychotic-like symptoms. British Journal of Psychiatry, 202(05), 381-382. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.112.121178

90.↑Curran, V. H., & Morgan, C. J. (2014). Desired and undesired effects of Cannabis on the human mind and psychological well-being. In Handbook of cannabis: Edited by Roger G. Pertwee. New York: Oxford University Press.

91.↑Henquet, C. (2005). The Environment and Schizophrenia: The Role of Cannabis Use. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 31(3), 608-612. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbi027

92.↑Curran, V. H., & Morgan, C. J. (2014). Desired and undesired effects of Cannabis on the human mind and psychological well-being. In Handbook of cannabis: Edited by Roger G. Pertwee. New York: Oxford University Press.

93.↑Moore, T. H., Zammit, S., Lingford-Hughes, A., Barnes, T. R., Jones, P. B., Burke, M., & Lewis, G. (2007). Cannabis use and risk of psychotic or affective mental health outcomes: a systematic review. The Lancet, 370(9584), 319-328. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(07)61162-3

94.↑Morgan, C. J., Gardener, C., Schafer, G., Swan, S., Demarchi, C., Freeman, T. P., Curran, H. V. (2011). Sub-chronic impact of cannabinoids in street cannabis on cognition, psychotic-like symptoms and psychological well-being. Psychological Medicine, 42(02), 391-400. doi:10.1017/s0033291711001322

95.↑Degenhardt, L., Coffey, C., Romaniuk, H., Swift, W., Carlin, J. B., Hall, W. D., & Patton, G. C. (2012). The persistence of the association between adolescent cannabis use and common mental disorders into young adulthood. Addiction, 108(1), 124-133.

96.↑Fraser, G.A. (2009). The use of a synthetic cannabinoid in the management of treatment-resistant nightmares in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics, 15, 84-88.

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